Unity Mono Runtime – The Truth about Disposable Value Types

When I started making games using Unity, after almost 10 years of C# development, I was very concerned to acknowledge that foreach loops are highly avoided in Unity because they allocate unnecessary memory on the heap. Personally I love the clean syntax of a foreach. It aids readably and clarity and it also increases the abstraction level. However a very clear and neat explanation of the memory issue problem can be found in a blog article posted on Gamasutra by Wendelin Reich.

From Wendelin’s analysis it emerged that the version of the Mono compiler adopted in Unity has a different behaviour from Microsoft implementation. In particular enumerators, which are usually implemented in the .NET framework as mutable value types, are boxed by the compiler, causing an unnecessary generation of garbage. Boxing is the process of converting a value type (allocated on the stack) into a reference type, thus allocating a new instance on the heap.  Continue reading “Unity Mono Runtime – The Truth about Disposable Value Types”

Unity and Reflection – Optimising Memory using Caching on iOS

Summary

Reflection

I really love reflection. Reflection is a technique used for obtaining type information at run-time. It’s not only that, with reflection is possible to examine and change information of objects, to generate (technically to emit IL) new classes, methods and so on still at runtime. It’s a powerful technique but it is known, under certain circumstances, for being slow. If you are a game developer and you are targeting mobile devices (iOS or Android for instance) using Unity, you definitely want to preserve your memory and save precious clock cycles. Moreover, with AOT (Ahead of Time compilation)  IL cannot be emitted at run-time as it is pre-generated at compile time. Therefore a large part of reflection, e.g. expression trees, anonymous types etc., is just not available.

The Problem

Recently I have worked on a dynamic prefab serializer and I needed to use reflection to retrieve types from their string representations. In general to retrieve a type in C# you have three options:

  • typeof(MyClass), which is an operator to obtain a type known at compile-time.
  • GetType() is a method you call on individual objects, to get the execution-time type of the object.
  • Type.GetType(“Namespace.MyClass, MyAssembly”) gives you a type from its string representation at runtime.

Continue reading “Unity and Reflection – Optimising Memory using Caching on iOS”